Which species are alien?
Alien species are those, brought in from outside, which are not naturally distributed in Bulgaria. Their arrival is the result of human activity – transport, tourism, trade, agriculture, gardening, afforestation. Sometimes introduction happens when the natural barriers across countries and continents are breached – through bodies of water, by birds and animals, etc.
Most invasive alien plant species (IAS) possess powerful reproduction and survival mechanisms. They do not have particular environmental requirements or natural pests. IAS plants are easily naturalised and spread without the aid of humans.
Some of the most widespread and dangerous invasive alien plant species in Europe are tree of heaven, common ragweed, black locust, indigo bush, himalayan balsam, japanese knotweed, boxelder; annual fleabane, canadian fleabane and others.
The Slovenian Forestry Institute has published a Field Guide to Invasive Alien Species in European Forests in English It is a useful tool for recognizing and limiting the alien species of trees, shrubs, climbing and herbaceous plants, fungi, bacteria, insects, birds and mammals in the forests. You can review it and download it here.
The Guide was first prepared in Slovenian, within the framework of the project Awareness Raising, Training and Measures on Invasive alien Species in forests (LIFE ARTEMIS), which is funded by the European Commission in the framework of the LIFE financial mechanism, the Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning of the Republic of Slovenia, the City of Ljubljana and the Slovenian Research Agency. The English version has been adapted for the international community and many of the species have been specially added.
Download a corrected list of the Bulgarian common names of the species from the Field Guide.